Role of Ganoderma in Cancer

A doctor once said, "Cancer is a serious disease, but it is not fatal. Patients have a good chance to recover." This statement sounds consolatory but basing on our recent research data, it can very well be true.

The prestigious Japanese doctor, Dr Fukumi Morishige, M.D.,Phd., currently involved in the research of reishi's role in cancer control, is a researcher at the Linus Pauling Institute of Science & Medicine - an American institute that had been awarded the most Nobel prizes. He also occupies an important role in Europe's medical fields as well, and is the only Japanese authority employed by the international cancer group. The following is his speech and case reports on reishi.

I have been a surgeon for 37 years and have performed numerous operations. I have a keen interest in surgery especially when I was young but gradually questions began to appear. Always feel that the ideal would be to induce the natural immunity power within oneself.

Being a surgeon, I had countless occasions to encounter cancer cases; however, the key to cancer controls is in its early detection, which is easier said than done. About one in a hundred would be considered a good percentage.

Nowadays, regular physical check-ups is the trend and this is good practice, but we have to realize that one cannot let our guards down just because cancer was not detected at the time of check-ups. People often suspect the physicians of misdiagnosing when cancer was detected at a later date. This notion is incorrect as there are many undiscovered cases even with monthly check-ups. For example, in the case of penetrance type stomach cancer, it is one of the most difficult to detect and these account for about 25% of the cases, therefore, prevention is equally important.

It is better to employ preventive measures in the case of cancer but there are no set methods. One can always rely on dietary control, but here again it is not a prescribed regiment. The best method at the present is reishi. I do not know of its amazing effects until after I have used it and I am truly surprised. During my practice, I have obtained outstanding results using reishi either as preventive measures or during the course of treatments.

Earlier on, I have come across patients and their relatives praising the merits of reishi. But being a medical person, I have thought that it might have a slight effect on certain chronic diseases but on cancer, surely, must be greatly exaggerated.

Reishi's tremendous effect warrants further studies. In June of 1986, a 39-year-old female came to me with lung cancer and complications of the chest wall membrane. She had been told that she could not be operated on by a number of hospitals. She left in a hopeless state. Upon returning home, her husband started to feed her reishi. After my examination, I was surprised by the findings: 6 months ago, she had edema in the chest cavity, secondary to cancer and now the symptom had completely disappeared. For a person who have already made her funeral arrangement and waiting for death to rediscover there is hope for life, is incredible. X-ray had presented an even better picture when I am going through her medical history. She insisted that this was the result of her husband giving her reishi. The edema had drained while the cancer tumor remained. On a rough calculation, this patient had used about 4 grams of reishi essence daily and this was quite a high dosage. We further undertook exploratory surgery and by using special freeze technique, it was possible to perform operations on chest membrane cancer. Looking at the x-ray, no cancerous cells were found. Only scar tissues were evident, which were different from cancer cells. I did a biopsy of the lung tissues and detected malignancy, but stable. The next case involved a child with congenital liver cancer. He had one operation when he was 5 years old and later, had his small intestines removed due to metasiasis. The treating doctor felt that the patient's condition was terminal and stopped treatment eventually. The boy's parents brought the patient home and fed him reishi through an N.G. tube (Nasogastric tube). The boy came to me when he was 9 and I was unable to detect any diseases. Nothing was found in the CT scan examination as well. Congenital liver cancer is a form of juvenile carcinoma and I was much surprised that the patient recovered after just regular ingestion of several grams of reishi essence. He continues to take 2 grams of the essence daily. Even the boy knows that without the reishi he might not have lived today. Juvenile carcinoma is usually fatal, but then this patient remains alive and healthy with no physical ailments are truly amazing. This fact now calls for new consideration on my part. When a person recovers by undergoing no other treatment but reishi ingestion, it is obvious that reishi deserves further research.

I was provided with large quantities of reishi essence from a very reputable chemical company in Japan. I administer the same to my patients in mega dosage combined with Vitamin C. Within one year, about 500 kilograms of reishi essence (approximately 6000 kilograms of premium reishi) were used on my patients. An interesting fact have surfaced during my treatment is that where large doses of reishi essence induce melena ( i.e. several grams or more daily), combination with Vitamin C put a stop to this. Furthermore, numerous observations have confirmed the fact that cancer patients are generally more susceptible to contract other diseases due to their lowered body resistance. However, after being treated with reishi, complications due to such inflections are greatly diminished. I have assigned random cancer patients to administer reishi essence with a control group of patients with other illness, e.g. arthritic rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis etc., that is, people with lowered body resistance to diseases.

Immunogloburin test determines the level of immunity. We have found that after ingesting reishi, level of IgA, IgG, IgM have increased. This proves that reishi can elevate the body's resistance level.

At this time, I have 140 cancer patients. All have metastic cancer except 6 with breast cancer and 60 are being hospitalized. We have zeroed in on these cancer patients. Up to today (spring of 1988), about 300 patients have undergone testing.


Before I give case examples, I would like to unveil the secret of why reishi is so effective in the treatment of cancer. The conclusion is not fully understood at the present time and when it is, then, men would have found the ultimate cure for cancer. Employing all the latest medical technology, it is found that the polysaccharides in reishi are effective in suppressing cancerous cells. Japanese scientists are the first in making this discovery. Perhaps this had something to do with the fact that the country employs herbal medicine in treatment of diseases and conducts vigorous researches into polysaccharides. This fact is recognized in North America and is further awaiting findings from such Japanese researches.


Polysaccharides are made up of a high number of molecular components - up to millions of atoms and this makes it difficult to be absorbed into the human body system. In order to make it easily assimilated, its high count has to be lowered and using Vitamin C with reishi does just that. The polysaccharides are converted into oligoglucan that has a low molecular count and can be easily absorbed. It in turns stimulates the macrophage, which triggers the immune system in our body. Macre meaning big. This type of cell can devour any foreign organisms. They are not active when the body is functioning normally, but, in the presence of foreign organisms (e.g. bacteria), they become very active in attacking such bacterial foreign matters. The white blood cells in the blood stream comprise the initial defense against diseases but they are ineffective in chronic cases or malignant type of matters, at which time, the lymphocyte becomes the second line of defense. Failing that, the last defense will be the macrophage - it is like a sleeping lion being awakened to attack with truly exceptional result! They are capable of sweeping away any foreign organisms thus destroying the cancerous cells in the process. Under the microscope, the macrophage is observed to be one tenth the size of a cancer cell, yet, it possesses the power to destroy the latter. From this, we can understand their invaluability to the human body. However, the macrophage cannot be easily activated. We have found that aggregated atoms are responsible for this activation of the macrophage, and reishi contains the substance to manufacture these aggregated atoms.


Earlier a patient with high blood pressure had inquired into the effects of reishi. I had told him that there was certainly no harm in trying as I had conducted research at that time. One fact is: even a diluted dose of reishi essence lowers blood pressure. However this patient had maintained his blood pressure level after reishi ingestion. Following my suggestion to ingest Vitamin C together with reishi, his blood pressure dropped to an acceptable level. The reason for this is, as mentioned previously, reishi contains up to a million atoms and cannot be easily absorbed into the body; therefore, one should combine it with Vitamin C.

Seventeen years ago, I have conducted research into the Vitamin C's ability to break down polysaccharides. At that time, the method of viscosity gauge has been employed. Placing Vitamin C into a measure of polysaccharide substance, a decrease of the polysaccharides molecular count is indicated by a drop in the viscosity. Thus, confirming Vitamin C's ability of dissolving polysaccharides.

Animal experiments have shown that all forms of sugar can be absorbed but are just the opposite in human, why? This has some correlation with Vitamin C - human body is unable to manufacture Vitamin C, while animals can. This is the reason why we need to combine the intake of Vitamin C with reishi.

New medical findings indicate that there is no harm in taking high dosage of Vitamin C daily. Dr. Linus Pauling, who is now in his 80's, ingests 18 grams of Vitamin C daily, and I ingest 12 grams a day. I believe a healthy person needs a supplement of 1 gram to 2 grams a day, that is 1,000 - 2,000 mg. This can contribute greatly to one's well being.

Brain tumor patient recovering consciousness in just 2 months.

We have made many discoveries. Using brain disease patients as examples, one 70 years old plus patient in the hospital had a 5 cm brain tumor. He had already lost consciousness despite surgery. He began the reishi treatment around June of 1986 and by September, he had recovered his senses, but the size of the tumor had remained the same. However by December, the tumor had decreased in size, even the neurologist was amazed. The patient now feels very well. Initially he was administered 6 grams of reishi essence through a stomach tube. After the recovery of his senses, oral intake was administered. The patient did not like the bitter taste of reishi essence, so the amount was reduced to 3 grams. Although the dosage had been reduced, his brain tumor eventually shrunk to about 1 cm. With the return of his memory, he left the hospital and stayed home with the family instead.

- Recession of lung cancer within 6 months.

I once treated a fifty plus female patient who had breast cancer. After her breast surgery, she had developed metastasic lung cancer. Later she deteriorated to hemoptysis. She began to use about 6 gm. of reishi daily for 6 months and the cancerous lung tumor disappeared. Before, she is often short of breath, but now she can walk up the stairs effortlessly. Therefore, she has complete confidence in the continuation of the reishi treatment.

- Breast cancer cured in 2 months with mega dosage.

This patient had breast cancer and the cancer cells had matastased to the bones. She had not been able to move from the head down. The pain was excruciating. Luckily, her digestive system was not affected and she was able to take 9 grams of reishi essence daily, which was later increased, to 20 grams. In just 2 months, she felt no pain. She had been discharged from the hospital after she made progress in her walking ability.

- Cancer of rectum spreading to the liver with remarkable recovery in 6 months.

Some time ago, this patient came to the hospital for treatment of metastasis of rectal cancer to the liver. He was given 6 grams of reishi essence. In 6 months, CT scanning reported that the cancerous tumor had decreased to about 1 cm in size, but the CT specialists did not believe in the merits of reishi and insisted that there was a mistake in the scanning. I was angered by this and argued that not only had the patient's CEA swelling came down but his general health had also improved. Was it not enough proof? Ordinarily, it is difficult to treat rectal cancers. Some cases are even terminal. This patient had such a smooth recovery which could only be credited to reishi. Generally speaking, it is easier to treat rectal tumor under 3 cm in size.

- Pancreas cancer patient can walk again.

A 60 year old male pancreas cancer patient had surgery and was in a better state for a while, but later deteriorated. He had edema and lost weight. Examination results revealed that he had extremely high count of CA19-9CEA. I informed him that with his present treatment he would die within a short period of time. I advised him to be hospitalized. Due to financial reasons, he was given another kind of medication but he reacted unfavorably to it. Therefore, we had to change his treatment to 9 grams of reishi essence orally and 30 grams of Vitamin C through intravenous injection daily. This began from August of 1986 which was over 1 year ago. The patient had since completely recovered and various examinations could not detect symptoms of any kind. He has gone back to work but continues to take 5 grams of reishi daily. He comes for a follow-up examination every 2 weeks and repeat CEA examinations show that his CA19-19 counts continues to drop. There is many more such cancer cases in my hospital. Although cancer cases involving the brain, lungs and liver are more serious, I feel that it is easier to treat than the cases involving the digestive organs. It is harder for the patients of the latter to ingest reishi orally. Besides cancer, reishi is also very effective in the treatment of hepatitis. With the use of 1 gram to 3 grams of reishi essence daily, hepatitis patients will have tremendous recovery results.

- Hepatitis cured with reishi.

One patient who had hepatitis for a few years and his SGOT & SGPT count was 200 - 300. Normal range is under 30. I administered 3 grams of reishi daily and in about 2 -3 months his SGOT & SGPT dropped to around 50. Even this is still higher than normal, continuous use will bring it in range. During this time, I asked him to stop using reishi and immediately the count shot up to between 150 - 200. The count dropped when treatment resumed. Thus proving the effect of reishi on hepatitis. A combination with the use of Vitamin C is essential. Under these conditions, 6 grams of Vitamin C is needed, i.e. 3 grams of reishi essence with 6 grams of Vitamin C. We must understand that hepatitis is a chronic disease and relapse is ever present. It is necessary to continue the intake of reishi (using smaller dosage) even after one's recovery from hepatitis. Prevention is always the best measure. Reishi is just as effective against other chronic diseases and optimum results are obtained when combined with the intake of Vitamin C. Especially true for long term prevention use. In conclusion, reishi has been proven to exert significant effect on diminishing pain, fortifying the body's immune system and prolonging life. Even though its role in cancer control has not been determined 100 percent yet. Medications presently employed to combat cancer have their effect but unfortunately these also produce serious side effects. Reishi have a history of 3,000 years, during which time it is widely used by many people with no reported unfavorable side effects. I therefore recommend reishi for treatment and prevention as a safety measure. I hope that people from all walks of life will take a concerned interest and share in this project. Hopefully, in the very near future, reishi can bring a brighter outlook to the human race in the conquest of longevity.
Ganoderma - Could It Help In The Treatment Of Cancer?
By definition, Ganoderma is a “mushroom” from the green and vibrant Mycetes plant kingdom where  short and tiny fungi that are unable to manufacture their own food like green plants through
photosynthesis thrive. Within the plant kingdom, Ganoderma Lucidum belongs to a superior grade. Of all  the many edible fungi in the kingdom, the Ganoderma mushroom stands out in its significant medicinal  values.  Although Ganoderma may seem trivial to most people for it leads a parasitic life by breaking down and  surviving on nutrients of other plants and animals, there is more to this mushroom than meets the eye.  Known as the "superior herb, Ganoderma Lucidum is a rare variety of mushroom credited with the highest  medicinal qualities in the Ancient China and is also a subject of many researches by various universities  and organizations in the modern times. Also known as “Linghzi” in China which is considered as an  auspicious medicine because of its medical efficacy and “Reishi” in Japan which is called, the God’s  Herbs, Ganoderma’s worldwide popularity as a powerful medicinal herb continues to increase and is now    mass-produced to help combat one of the dreaded diseases of today cancer..

Ganoderma works best in the treatment of cancer because it helps cleanse the entire body from toxins  while it strengthens immunity. It also contributes to the improvement of liver function while it stimulates  the regeneration of liver cells providing a very important supplement for those people who have liver  cancer. Aside enhancing liver detoxification, the anti-cancer agents in Ganoderma which include  Germanium and polysaccharides. The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma is responsible for its antitumor  efficacy.  The indications for Ganoderma use in cancer include supplementation to reduce side-effects during  radiotherapy or chemotherapy, to prolong survival, to improve quality of life, and to prevent occurrence  or recurrence. While Ganoderma is used as a supplement during chemotherapy or radiotherapy to reduce  side-effects such as loss of appetite, fatigue, hair loss, and risk of infection, it can also reduce the toxic  and lessen the pains during the sessions particularly to cancer patients at terminal stages. Aside from  helping the immune and endocrine system to prevent tumors, help improve the circulation and eliminate
harmful free radicals, other qualities of Ganoderma that help in the treatment of cancer include the
inhibition of DNA synthesis of the cancer cells, destroying the terminal enzyme activity of the tumor cells  and restrain the spread of cancer cells.  Still, while Ganoderma has been recognized traditionally and scientifically as potentially useful in the  treatment of cancer, there is still a notable discrepancy whether it can totally cure the Big �C�  because of the lack of clinical trials demonstrating its efficacy. Despite these controversies, studies still  suggest that though Ganoderma and its derivatives are not pharmaceuticals and have not undergone  rigorous clinical trials to be tested against the disease, there are indirect clinical evidences to support its  supplemental use in cancer.
Aside from being the biggest potential in curing cancer, the need to take Ganoderma is still indispensable  for many illnesses are caused by the imbalance of body functions due to the accumulated toxins in the  body.  Apart from removing the build-up of toxins, Ganoderma also protects and detoxifies the liver, prevents  and cures heart diseases while it slows the aging process. It also has positive effect on insomnia, being a  cure for high blood pressure and as effective treat diabetes. While it serves as a treatment for chronic  bronchitis and asthma, Ganoderma also has effect on hyper susceptibility and is used as a beauty care  medicine for the skin.

Língzhī is the name for one form of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, and its close relative Ganoderma  tsugae, which grows in the northern Eastern Hemlock forests.  Ganoderma lucidum enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used in traditional Chinese  medicine as a herbal medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known
to have been used in medicine.  Lingzhi may possess some anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic activities, supported  by some studies on polysaccharides, terpenes, and other bioactive compounds isolated from fruiting  bodies and mycelia of this fungus (reviewed by R. R. Paterson).  However, the efficacy of these compounds in the treatment of cancer has not yet been shown in clinical  trials. Moreover, as with any herb, variation between preparations and potential negative side effects  cannot be ruled out. It is understood as adaptogenic,   anti-allergenic and anti-hypertensive due to the  presence of triterpenes.  Apart from these properties, lingzhi has been found to be anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-parasitic,  anti-fungal, antidiabetic, anti-hypotensive, and protective of the liver. It has also been found to inhibit  platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.
Because of these properties, lingzhi has been regarded as blood pressure stabilizer, antioxidant,
analgesic, a kidney and nerve tonic. It has been used in bronchitis prevention and in   cardiovascular  treatment, and in the treatment of high triglycerides, high blood pressure, hepatitis, allergies,  chemotherapy support, HIV support, and even for fatigue and altitude sickness.  Some peer-reviewed studies indicate that ganoderic acid has some protective effects against liver injury  by viruses and other toxic agents in mice, suggesting a potential benefit of this compound in the  treatment of liver diseases in humans.
Although the experiences in fighting cancer are more inconsistent, the extract has been claimed to be  effective in regressing tumors. The results depend on the type of cancer and the severity of the  condition. It is usually recommended that it be used in combination with other prescribed medical  treatments and as part of a fu zheng formula with a variety of supporting herbs.
The Ganoderma extract has been employed to help substantially reduce or eliminate the side-effects of  radio- and chemotherapies if it is taken before, during and after the treatments. It has been found  clinically to reduce side-effects like hair loss, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, sore throat, loss of appetite  and insomnia.
Reishi and virus infection
Reishi has compounds that may have antiviral activity, including activity against the
Epstein-Barr virus.

Reishi and immune function
Oral administration of reishi results in Th1-associated immune enhancement in vivo.
Reishi and Cancer
Reishi has been shown to be a potential agent in the treatment or prevention of  certain cancers. In one study, reishi suppressed cell adhesion and cell migration of  highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potency to reduce  tumor invasiveness. Reishi clearly demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments  with cancer cells and has possible therapeutic potential as a dietary supplement for  an alternative therapy for breast and prostate cancer. Additional studies show water  soluble extracts from reishi inhibit colon tumors in mice. And, reishi may enhance the  immune response in those with end stage cancer. As of December 2007, extensive  human studies are not available to make any firm conclusions regarding the dosage
and safety of reishi in terms of human cancer treatment.  Regression of gastric large B-Cell lymphoma accompanied by a florid  lymphoma-like T-cell reaction: immunomodulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum  Reishi? Int J Surg Pathol. 2007 Apr;15(2):180-6. Department of Pathology, Queen  Elizabeth Hospital, Wylie Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong.Complete regression of highgrade
lymphoma is extremely rare. We report 1 such case that might have been  conceivably mediated by reishi. A 47-year-old man presented with epigastric pain.  Endoscopy revealed a large gastric ulcer, which on biopsy was diagnostic of large Bcell  lymphoma. At gastrectomy 11 days later, no evidence was found of large B-cell  lymphoma despite thorough sampling. Instead, there was a dense and permeative  infiltrate of CD3(+) CD8(+) cytotoxic small T lymphocytes spanning the whole  thickness of the gastric wall. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction  for T-cell receptor beta-chain family did not detect a monoclonal T-cell population.  We postulate that the cytotoxic T cells may represent an active host-immune  response against the large B-cell   lymphoma that resulted in a complete regression.  On questioning, the patient had taken  megadoses of reishi, which might have  triggered the successful immune reaction.

Anti cancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence.
Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(1):11-7. Department of Health Technology and Informatics,  The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, SAR, China. Reishi a popular  medicinal mushroom, has been used in China for longevity and health promotion  since ancient times. Investigations into the anti cancer activity of reishi have been  performed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, supporting its application for cancer  treatment and prevention. The proposed anti cancer activity of reishi has prompted  its usage by cancer patients. It remains debatable as to whether reishi is a food
supplement for health maintenance or actually a therapeutic "drug" for medical  proposes. Thus far there has been no report of human trials using reishi as a direct  anti cancer agent, despite some evidence showing the usage of reishi as a potential  supplement to cancer patients. Cellular immune responses and mitogenic reactivity  of cancer patients have been enhanced by reshi, as reported in two randomized and  one nonrandomized trials, and the quality of life of 65% of lung cancer patients  improved in one study. The direct cytotoxic and anti-angiogenesis mechanisms of  reishi have been established by in vitro studies; however, clinical studies should not  be neglected to define the applicable dosage in vivo. At present, reishi is a health  food supplement to support cancer patients, yet the evidence supporting the  potential of direct in vivo anti cancer effects should not be underestimated. 

Reishi and Neurasthenia
Neurasthenia does not have a good definition, but mostly involves lack of vitality,
fatigue, and lack of sense of wellbeing.  A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study of a Ganoderma lucidum  polysaccharide extract in neurasthenia. J Med Food. 2005   pring;8(1):53-8. New  Zealand Institute of Natural Medicine Research, Auckland, New Zealand.
Reishi has been widely used to treat various diseases, including
cancer, diabetes,  and neurasthenia in many Asian countries. This randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled  parallel study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a  polysaccharide extract of Reishi   Ganopoly) in Chinese patients with neurasthenia.  One hundred thirty-two patients with neurasthenia according to the diagnosis criteria  of the 10th International Classification of   diseases were included in this study.  Ganopoly was well tolerated in the study patients. These findings indicated that  Ganopoly was significantly superior to placebo with respect to the clinical
improvement of symptoms in neurasthenia.   Additional benefits of reishi mushroom
Animal studies indicate reishi has the ability to lower cholesterol levels.

Availability of Reishi
Reishi is sold in various forms, including tablets, reishi coffee or tea, and reishi

Reishi Research Update
Anti-androgenic activities of Ganoderma lucidum - Reishi. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005  Oct 31;102(1):107-12. Department of Forest and Forest Products Science, Faculty of  Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka. The inhibitory effects of methanol extracts  of 19 edible and medicinal mushrooms on 5alpha-reductase activity were examined.  The extract of Ganoderma lucidum Fr. Krast (Ganodermataceae- Reishi) showed the  strongest 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity. The treatment of the fruit body of  reishi or the extract prepared from it significantly inhibited the testosterone-induced  growth of the ventral prostate in castrated rats. These results showed that reishi  might be a useful ingredient for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the platelet and
global hemostatic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-Zhi - reishi ) in healthy  volunteers. Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):423-6  Reishi is a Chinese herbal medicine popular with cancer patients. Previous in  vitro studies suggested that reishi might impair hemostasis. In this prospective,
randomized double-blind study, healthy volunteers received orally reishi capsules 1.5  g (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) daily for 4 wk. We monitored subjects before drug  administration and at 4 and 8 wk thereafter by routine coagulation screen, fibrinogen  concentration, von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor activity, platelet function analyzer  PFA-100, and thrombelastography. There were no significant between-group  differences and all measurements remained within the normal range. Reishi ingestion  over 4 wk was not associated with impairment of hemostasis. 

Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its  possible mechanisms. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Nov;25(11):1387-95.
Ganoderma lucidum ( reishi ) is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological
activities. Reishi has long been used as a folk remedy for promotion of health and
longevity in China and other oriental countries. The most attractive character of this
kind of medicinal fungus is its effect on the immune system and anti-tumor activities.
Large numbers of studies have shown that reishi modulates many components of the
immune system such as the antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes.
The water extract and the polysaccharides fraction of reishi exhibited significant antitumor
effect in several tumor-bearing animals mainly through its immune system
enhancing activity. Recent studies also showed that the alcohol extract or the
triterpene fraction of reishi possessed anti-tumor effect, which seemed to be related
to the cytotoxic activity against tumor cells directly. Preliminary study indicated that
antiangiogenic effect may be involved antitumor activity of reishi.

Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides peptide.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Jun;25(6):833-8.
AIM: To investigate the antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma
lucidum polysaccharides peptide (Reishi). CONCLUSION: GLPP has antitumor and
anti-angiogenic activity. The anti-angiogenesis of reishi may be a new mechanism
underlying its anti-tumor effects.
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in
human prostate cancer cells PC-3.

Int J Oncol. 2004 May;24(5):1093-9.
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), an oriental medical mushroom, has been widely used in
Asian countries for centuries to prevent or treat different diseases, including cancer.
However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the effects of reishi on cancer cells
remain to be elucidated. Our data demonstrate that reishi inhibits cell proliferation in
a dose- and time-dependent manner by the down-regulation of expression of cyclin B
and Cdc2 and by the up-regulation of p21 expression. Furthermore, reishi induced
apoptosis of PC-3 cells with a slight decrease in the expression of NF-kappaBregulated
Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Reishi exerts its effect on cancer cells by multiple
mechanisms and may have potential therapeutic use for the prevention and
treatment of cancer.

Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) polysaccharides.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Feb;25(2):191-5.
AIM: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of reishi polysaccharides in the normal  fasted mice and its possible mechanism. Normal fasted mice were given a single  dose of reishi 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg by i.p. and the serum glucose was measured at  0, 3, and 6 h after administration. Reishi 100 mg/kg were also given by i.p. and the  serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and  12 h. Pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with glucose and different  concentration of reishi, the insulin content of islets and insulin release were  examined. Verapamil and egtazic acid were used to testify whether the insulinreleasing
effect of reishi was mediated by its ability to raise the Ca2+ influx. Reishi  dose-dependently lowered the serum glucose levels at 3 h and 6 h after  administration. Reishi 100 mg/kg raised the circulating insulin levels at 1 h after  administration. In vitro, reishi had no effect on islets insulin content, but it  stimulated the insulin release after incubation with glucose 5.6 mmol/L. Confocal
microscope showed that reishi 100 mg/L had the capacity to raise the [Ca2+]i. The  insulin-releasing effect of reishi was inhibited by verapamil/egtazic acid. Reishi  possesses the   hypoglycemic effect on normal mice; one mechanism is through its  insulin-releasing activity due to a facilitation of Ca2+ inflow to the pancreatic beta  cells.

Ganoderma lucidum (reishi), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker
responses in a controlled human supplementation study.

Br J Nutr. 2004 Feb;91(2):263-9.
Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum, reishi) is a woody mushroom highly regarded in  traditional medicine and is widely consumed in the belief that it promotes health and   longevity, lowers the risk of cancer and heart disease and boosts the immune  system. However, objective scientific validation of the putative health benefits of  reishi in human subjects is lacking, and issues of possible toxicity must be  addressed. The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention  study investigated the effects of 4 weeks reishi supplementation on a range of
biomarkers for antioxidant status, CHD risk, DNA damage, immune status, and  inflammation, as well as markers of liver and renal toxicity. It was performed as a  follow-up to a study that showed that antioxidant power in plasma increased after  reishi ingestion, and that 10 d supplementation was associated with a trend towards  an improved CHD biomarker profile. In the present study, fasting blood and urine  from healthy, consenting adults (n 18; aged 22-52 years) was collected before and  after 4 weeks supplementation with a commercially available encapsulated reishi
preparation (1.44 g reishi/d; equivalent to 13.2 g fresh mushroom/d) or placebo. No  significant change in any of the variables was found, although a slight trend toward  lower lipids was again seen, and antioxidant capacity in urine increased. The results  showed no evidence of liver, renal or DNA toxicity with reishi intake, and this is  reassuring. The present study of the effects in healthy, well-nourished subjects  provides useful, new scientific data that will support controlled intervention trials  using at-risk subjects in order to assess the therapeutic effect of reishi in the
promotion of healthy ageing.

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in cancer treatment.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2003 Dec;2(4):358-64.
The popular edible mushroom Reishi has been widely used for the general promotion  of health and longevity in Asian countries. The dried powder of reishi was popular as  a cancer chemotherapy agent in ancient China. The authors recently demonstrated  that reishi inhibits constitutively active transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B  (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, which resulted in the inhibition of expression of urokinasetype  plasminogen activator and its receptor uPAR. Reishi also suppressed cell  adhesion and cell migration of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells,  suggesting its potency to reduce tumor invasiveness. Thus, reishi clearly
demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments with cancer cells and has possible  therapeutic potential as a dietary supplement for an alternative therapy for breast  and prostate cancer. However, because of the availability of reishi from different
sources, it is advisable to test its biologic activity.

Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the
immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients.

Immunol Invest. 2003 Aug;32(3):201-15.
Preclinical studies have established that the Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide  (reishi) fractions have potent anti-tumor activity, which has been associated with the  immuno-stimulating effects of reishi. However, it is unclear whether reishi has  immuno-modulating effects in humans in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the  effects of Ganopoly, the polysaccharides fractions extracted from reishi, on the  immune function of advanced-stage cancer patients. Thirty-four advance-stage  cancer patients were entered onto this study, and treated with 1800 mg Ganopoly
(reishi), three times daily orally before meals for 12 weeks. Immune parameters  (cytokines, T cell subsets, and natural killer activity) were compared between  baseline and after 12-week treatment. Thirty patients are assessable for their  immune functions. Treatment of reishi for 12 weeks resulted in a significant increase  in the mean plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL-2), IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-  gamma, whereas the levels of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor   TNF-alpha) were  significantly decreased. A marked variability among patients with  advanced-stage  cancer was observed in the numbers of each lymphocyte subset at baseline. The  mean absolute number of CD56+ cells was significantly increased after 12-week  treatment of reishi, whereas the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ were just  marginally increased compared to baseline levels, with the CD4:CD8 T cell ratios  unchanged. In addition, reishi treatment resulted in a significant increase in the  mean NK activity compared to baselines. The present study indicates that Ganopoly  enhanced the immune responses in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Clinical  evaluations of response and toxicity are ongoing.

Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides (reishi) on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat.

Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72(6):731-45.
Many cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been known to  play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions caused by  various factors such as drugs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Our previous studies  have shown that the polysaccharide fractions isolated from the fruiting bodies of  Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) prevented indomethacin- and acetic acid-induced gastric  mucosal lesions in the rat. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study  aimed to investigate whether reishi had a direct mucosal healing effect in the  indomethacin-treated rat, and to explore the possible mechanisms by determining  the gastric mucosal mRNA and protein levels of TNF-alpha and ornithine  decarboxylase (ODC) activity. These findings indicated that reishi produced a  mucosal healing effect in the rat model, perhaps due partly to the suppression of  TNF-alpha.

Reishi Ganoderma Lucidum: An Effective Supplement
Against Many Diseases and Ailments

There are countless vitamins, herbal or natural products on the market claiming  medicinal and nutritional benefits to the human organism. It certainly can be a daunting task to figure  out which one really has therapeutic values. For each claim, you can find a counter claim. For instance,  recent researches showed that soy based products did not live up to the initial claims about  certain trace  elements offering nutritional values. Vitamin D has been challenged when some researches show that it  can be harmful over a certain dosage. Some even claim it has cancer fighting properties. Well, you get  the picture... the story goes on.  One herbal product, however, has been accepted and tested through time (estimated 2,000 years) to  have substantial therapeutic and medicinal values. Reishi Ganoderma a.k.a Lingzhi, extracted from rare  reishi mushrooms, has been recognized in Asia to be THE top superior natural herb among 365 others.
Once available to only the privileged in Asia, it is now making its way to the western world. The
therapeutic value of Reishi Ganoderma is not a fairy tale, but rather backed by incredible recent
scientific  researches. To find out more about Reishi, its benefits and clinical findings, we welcome you  to visit other parts of our web site.
Reishi Ganoderma - Scientific Research and Findings
Similar to many mushrooms, Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi) grows in wet climes, commonly on decaying  plant matter. Called Ling Zhi in China, reishi is purported to promote health and longevity, lower the risk  of cancer and heart disease, and strengthen immunity, according to a study in the February 2004 issue of  the British Journal of Nutrition. Reishi contains several major constituents, including sterols, coumarin,  mannitol, polysaccharides, and triterpenoids called ganoderic acids. Ganoderic acids may lower blood  pressure as well as decrease LDL (bad) cholesterol. These specific triterpenoids also help reduce blood  platelets from sticking together - an important factor in lowering the risk for coronary artery  disease. Two controlled clinical trials have investigated the effects of reishi on high blood pressure in  humans and both found it could lower blood pressure significantly compared to a placebo or controls.  The people with   hypertension in the second study had previously not responded to medications, though  these were continued during the study. Unlike other proclaimed "cure-all" herbs, Reishi effectiveness
is backed by hundreds of medical and scientific studies with factual results. The following are just a  few examples of its promising therapeutic value on cancer.
The January 2006 latest research results from the prestigious Cedars-Sinai medical center  reveals  that Reishi causes apoptosis (cell death) of HUMAN cancer cells. Furthermore, The Methodist Research  Institude in Indianapolis recently published a research paper (May, 2008) demonstrating Reishi (G.  Lucidum) as a promising natural agents for the therapy of invasive breast cancers as the Reishi Ganoderic  acids suppress growth and spread of cancer cells.  In vitro results published in May 2004 in the International Journal of Oncology showed that Reishi can  arrest cell proliferation, cell cycle, and induce apoptosis in human prostate and breast cancer cells.  The renowned Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York has extensive references showing  that Reishi enhances the immune response in advance-stage cancer patients. Based on these  findings, Ganoderma Lucidum Reishi could be a potent  supplement in the prevention of cancer.
What is Reishi Ganoderma Lucidum?
Origin, Important Characteristics, Scientific Studies on its Application to Major Health Conditions, and  Vital Immune System Strengthening.  Reishi, a.k.a Ganoderma lucidum, is a type of mushroom known in the Far East for thous ands of years for  its effectiveness in treating broad range of maladies "miraculously". In some cases, Reishi or "Lingzhi" is  treated as "miracle herb" due to historical events in ancient China that mentioned Reishi’s ability to  attain immortality. Reishi differs from the supermarket varieties in that its texture is similar to wood. In traditional Chinese medicine, Reishi is in the most highly rated herb category in terms of multiple benefit
and absence of side effects. It is the only known source of a group of triterpenes known as ganoderic  acids, which have a molecular structure similar to steroid hormones. It has the most active  polysaccharides (long "chains" of sugars) among medicinal plant sources. Reishi also contains ergosterols, complete proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals.
Wild Reishi is scarce and suffers from adverse environmental conditions such as insect infestation, lack of  proper nutrients, non-optimum temperatures, and lack of humidity. The timing of the harvest cannot be  controlled, and the mature Reishi has already lost most of its digestible active ingredients. The active  ingredients in the dried mushroom may also have lost much of their beneficial biological activity. The 6  different types of Reishi (differentiated by color: red, purple, blue, yellow, black, white) recorded in  Chinese pharmacopoeia are actually one species grown under different conditions. In 1972, a Japanese   researcher who pioneered the growing of Reishi demonstrated that by varying the conditions of growth,  Reishi of 6 different colors can be grown from the same species.   Reishi are polypore mushrooms. Mushrooms are the fruiting body and reproductive structure of a higher  order fungus organism, much like an orange is the fruit of an orange tree. The actual mushroom organism  or "tree" is a fine thread-like network called mycelium. This mycelium is for the most part subterranean,  living in soil, logs and other organic litter.  Unlike green plants, which produce many of their own nutrients by photosynthesis, mushrooms primarily  source their nutrients from dead organic matter or soil. Mushrooms and their mycelium are nature's  original recyclers. Without them, the Earths' surface would be piled high with dead, decaying material.  Mushrooms rise out of the mycelium when the right nutrients are amassed and the right environmental  conditions are present. Mushrooms release spores at maturity. The wind spreads them and when they  land in suitable locations, the cycle recommences.  Numerous studies of Reishi mainly in China, Korea, Japan and the United States show effectiveness of  Reishi for a very wide range of diseases and symptoms. But the studies have not given indisputable  explanation on its healing mechanism because none of its presumed and known active components taken  alone have given better results as a whole than the intake of Reishi itself.  Its effectiveness applies to many areas so it is difficult to classify each of them and conduct research in  each field. It is perhaps more comprehensible at this time, to explain Reishi's "miraculous powers" from  the Traditional Chinese Medicine point of view.  In the West, we have separated and classified each disease meticulously, and have specialized in each of  them to such a degree that it seems today as if each disease is autonomous and standing alone.  Oriental Medicine, resulting from knowledge accumulated through 4000 years of human observation,  asserts that health can be maintained by sustaining the right balance within the body and that diseases  can be cured by restoring this balance through nutrition, including medicinal herbs, exercise and mental  peace. In other words, a disease is believed to be the tip of an iceberg, the result of the underlying  imbalance of the body which must be restored.  The 2000 years old medicinal book "Seng Nong's Herbal Classic", considered today as the oldest book on
oriental herbal medicine, classifies 365 species of roots of grass, woods, furs, animals and stones  separates herbal medicines into 3 categories. The first category, called superior, includes herbs effective  for multiple diseases and mostly responsible for maintaining and restoring the body balance. They have  no unfavorable side effects. The second category, middle, comprises tonics and boosters and their  consumption must not be prolonged. The third category, low, must be taken usually in small dosages and  for specific ailments. This category includes some poisonous herbs. Reishi, ranked number one of the  superior medicines, was the most exalted medicine in ancient times. Reishi or Lingzhi is still a popular  herb today prescribed by many herbalists in China, Hong Kong and Japan to threat various kind of  sickness.  Studies:
Extract from the United Kingdom Cancer Research Institute
Ganoderma Lucidum: Ganoderma Lucidum and related species have the longest historical usage for  medicinal purposes, dating back at least four millennia (Zhao and Zeuny, 1994). In Japan it is called  Reishi or Mannetake (10,000 year mushroom) and in China and Korea it is variously called Ling Chu, Ling  Chih and Ling Zhi (Mushroom of Immortality). It is the mushroom most depicted in ancient Japanese,  Korean and Chinese Art and has been extensively depicted in Chinese royal tapestries. Reishi is also  widely used in the Orient as a talisman to protect a person or home against evil. The fungus grows in  many parts of the world and in Japan is to be found mainly on old plum trees. Originally, rare and  expensive it can now be artificially cultivated, which makes it more accessible and affordable.  The mushroom and mycelium contain steroids, lactones, alkaloids, polysaccharide and triterpenes.   Pharmacologically, a number of the water-soluble polysaccharides have demonstrated antitumour and  immunostimulating activities. At least 100 different alcohol-soluble triterpenes have been identified   including highly oxidized lanostane-type triterpenoids such as ganoderic, ganoderenic, lucidenic, and  ganolucidic acids. These triterpenoids have been shown to possess adaptogenic and antihypertensive as  well as anti-allergic properties.  This mushroom possesses many different medicinal properties dependent on the stage and environment  of its growth (Jong and Birmingham, 1992, Liu, 1999). Traditionally, it has been widely used in the  treatment of hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia,  bronchitis, asthma and gastric ulcers. Scientific studies have confirmed that substances extracted from  the mushroom can reduce blood pressure, blood cholesterol and blood sugar levels as well as inhibit  platelet aggregations. Reishi extracts have been highly effective in alleviating altitude sickness and also  in treating myotonia dystrophica. Several major biochemicals such as polysaccharides, proteins and  triterpenoids with potent immuno-modulating action have been isolated from Ganoderma spp. The major
immuno-modulating effects of these active substances include mitogenicity and activation of immune  effector cells such as T cells, macrophages and natural killer cells resulting in the production of  cytokines, including interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-á and interferons. The therapeutic action of G.  lucidum as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent has been associated with its immuno-modulating  properties (Wang et al., 1977). While the extensive range of traditional medical treatments with this  mushroom have not yet been fully substantiated by modern scientific standards they are being  extensively scrutinized in the Far East and the USA (Chang, 1995, 1999, Chen and Miles, 1996). In view of  its bitter taste and indigestible structure (often similar to varnished wood in appearance) this is not an  edible mushroom but, in hot water extracted form, it is available worldwide in tablet and liquid products  (Stamets, 1999).

Pharmacological effects of whole Reishi extracts in vivo and in vitro (for references see Hobbs, 1995)
· Analgesic
· Anti-allergic activity
· Bronchitis-preventative effect, inducing regeneration of bronchial epithelium
· Anti-inflammatory
· Antibacterial, against Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Bacillus pneumoniae (perhaps due to
increased immune system activity)
· Antioxidant, by eliminating hydroxyl free radicals
· Antitumor activity
· Antiviral effect, by inducing interferon production
· Lowers blood pressure
· Enhances bone marrow nucleated cell proliferation
· Cardiotonic action, lowering serum cholesterol levels with no effect on triglycerides, enhancing
myocardial metabolism of hypoxic animals, and improving coronary artery hemodynamics
· Central depressant and peripheral anti-cholinergic actions on the autonomic nervous system reduce  the effects of caffeine and relax muscles
· Enhanced natural killer cell (NK) activity in vitro in mice
· Expectorant and antitussive properties demonstrated in mice studies
· General immunopotentiation
· Anti-HIV activity in vitro and in vivo
· Improved adrenocortical function
· Increased production of Interleukin-1 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro
· Increased production of Interleukin-2 by murine splenocytes in vitro
Key active constituents:
· Beta and hetero-Beta-glucans (antitumour, immunostimulating )
· Ling Zhi-8 protein (anti-allergenic, immuno-modulating)
· Ganodermic acids triterpenes (anti-allergenic agents, cholesterol and blood pressure reducing)
Extract from Healthy and Natural Journal, 2000, by Kenneth Jones
In China, the oldest known medical documents on reishi describe the mushroom as being good for the  heart, memory, intellect, and longevity. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), reishi is indicated for the  treatment of coronary heart disease, bronchial asthma, insomnia, impotence, hay fever, dizziness,  stomach ulcers, depression, and debility from long-term illness. The main immunity-enhancing  component of reishi mycelium is found in the polysaccharide fraction. Administered orally in various strains of mice, it produced an increase in natural killer cell activity and interferon production.  As an ingredient in the diet of laboratory mice, reishi at 25 percent of the feed was more active at  inhibiting the development of lung cancer (82.2 percent tumor inhibition) than high dietary amounts of  fresh Panax ginseng (58 percent inhibition), soybean lecithin (71.2 percent inhibition), vitamin C (37.5  percent inhibition), or beta-carotene (0 percent inhibition).  In addition to its immunological properties, reishi is also known to have beneficial effects on the liver. In  a recent study in rats with liver cirrhosis, when a protein-bound polysaccharide from reishi mycelium was  administered, levels of toxic by-products in the liver were lowered and fibrosis was reduced. In the same  study, no effect was found with the licorice root compound glycyrrhizin or with pentoxifylline, a  methylxanthine known to be effective in pigs with liver cirrhosis. Research continues on the reishi  mycelium polysaccharide to determine just how it inhibits deposits of collagen in the liver. Given the lack  of safe and effective agents to treat cirrhosis, this polysaccharide may be an ideal candidate for clinical  studies.  In addition to the polysaccharide factor, reishi mycelium contains several triterpenes (ganoderic acids R,  S and T) that have shown liver function-stimulating and antitoxic activity in laboratory studies. The  sterone ganodosterone is also a liver function stimulant. When used to treat acute hepatitis in China,
reishi liquid extract (20 mL. twice daily for 12 weeks) was reported to have an overall efficacy rate of  70.7 to 98 percent. The powder extract in capsules (2 g. thrice daily) was recently reported to benefit  patients with acute hepatitis B; in three months, these patients' liver enzyme levels returned to normal  and they began producing antibodies to the hepatitis B virus.  Although these small studies cannot be taken as proof of efficacy, they still give an indication of the  kinds of activity that might be expected and eventually established with better-controlled, larger clinical
trials. Further research in many additional areas is also needed, as reishi has been shown to produce  excellent results in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, anorexia, neuroses, Alzheimer 's disease,  hypertension, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, lupus, dermatomyositis, and the  prevention of high-altitude sickness. The only double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of reishi  have been in studies of treatment-resistant hypertension and human papilloma virus infection of the  male genitals. In each case the results were excellent.
There is an abundant amount of information available on the web. Please find a few below that we
found informative:  U.S. National Institutes of Health - Do a seach on "Ganoderma" or "Reishi" for the latest researches  Comprehensive Reishi Discussion  Reishi Extract and Immune Support
Article of Red Reishi from a medical anthropologist  Numerous Research Studies Through Dr. Howard Fisher Web Site  Better Nutrition Article on Reishi and Other Mushrooms
Los Angeles Times Article on Reishi  Many Reishi Researches Through the Reishi.com Site
Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple  myeloma cells.
Müller CI, Kumagai T, O'Kelly J, Seeram NP, Heber D, Koeffler HP.  Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States.  MullerCI@cshs.org  Over many centuries, herbal remedies have treated a variety of ailments. This empiric observational  approach has produced a number of leads for formulated medicines. Ganoderma lucidum extract was  screened for its anti-proliferative activity using a panel of 26 human cancer cell lines. The six most  sensitive hematologic cell lines were: HL-60 (ED50 26 microg/ml), U937 (63 microg/ml), K562 (50  microg/ml), Blin-1 (38 microg/ml), Nalm-6 (30 microg/ml) and RPMI8226 (40 microg/ml). Cell cycle  analyses revealed a G2/M arrest, most prominently in HL-60 cells. Four hematopoietic cell lines (HL-60,  Blin-1, U937, RPMI8226) were examined for apoptosis, which ranged between 21 and 92%. After exposure  to G. lucidum extract, HL-60 cells became multinucleated with an increased DNA content. These results
indicate that G. lucidum extract has a profound activity against leukemia, lymphoma and multiple
myeloma cells and may be a novel adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.